Translated from Spanish to English with Google Translator.

Studying at the time the data given by the Scripture on agriculture, with Adrián Pablos we asked the following question: Have we found evidence of the practice of agriculture and livestock in antediluvian times?

Below is an excerpt from chapter III of the book "SE EDÉN A LAS NACIONES"

Evidence of the earliest beginnings of agriculture and animal husbandry that science has been able to provide (so far) has been obtained from the archaeological sites of Ali Kosh and Jarmo.

I. Ali Kosh [1]: In the 1960s American archaeologists F. Hole and K.V. Flannery discovered the site in southern Iran, near the Zagros Mountains, about 150 meters above sea level, in the border region of Iraq. This site currently measures 150 m in diameter and 7 m deep. The place was populated from 8,000 BC. C. and was abandoned c. 6,000 BC Archaeologists have found evidence of their social organization and economy, which consisted of collecting wild fruits and cereals and raising sheep and goats.

II. Jarmo [2]: Between 1948 and 1955, American archaeologist Robert J. Braidwood excavated the Neolithic archaeological site of Jarmo, located in the region of Iraqi Kurdistan. According to the radiocarbon measurements, the nucleus was occupied between 7090 and 4950 a. C. Jarmo has found the first signs of the beginnings of agriculture and livestock.

It is known that the ancients cultivated wheat and barley, thanks to archaeological discoveries made in the Middle East.

1. The wheat [3]: The word wheat comes from the Latin word triticum, which means broken or crushed, referring to the action that must be performed to separate the wheat grain from the husk that covers it. Triticum encompasses both the grain itself and the crushing process necessary to consume it. Wheat is, therefore, one of the most ancient words to describe cereals. The word Triticum refers to both cultivated and wild cereals. Cereals are annual plants of the grass family. [The word wheat designates both the plant and its edible seeds, as with the names of other cereals. The cereal grains were used to make flour, whole meal and this to make bread (wheat bread, barley bread). With the barley fermented malts are made that give origin to the wine of malt and a great variety of alimentary products. ]

Note: Wheat has its origins in ancient Mesopotamia. The earliest archaeological evidence of wheat cultivation comes from Syria, Jordan, Turkey and Iraq around 6,000 BC. A mutation or hybridization occurred in wild wheat, resulting in a Tetraploid plant with larger seeds, which [4] could not have spread with the wind. There are findings of carbonized remains of starchy wheat grains (Triticum dicoccoides) and grain traces of cooked clay in Jarmo (northern Iraq), dating from 6700 BC. C. [5] This Wikipedia article talks about a possible hybridization or mutation:

I. A natural cross between two subspecies of wheat, from which a third hybrid is born.

II. A mutation, which is an alteration or change in genetic information (genotype) and which, therefore, will produce a change in characteristics, which occurs suddenly and spontaneously, and which can be transmitted or inherited to offspring.

2. Wild wheat is a diploid grass, cultivated for consumption since time immemorial. Its seed is light and carried by the winds, which is why it expands naturally, the seed of wild wheat has the property of self bury and develop a new plant, propagating the species. In ancient times it was the most important type of wheat for humanity, but is now almost extinct, since only crops are preserved in some regions of India and Spain.

Current wheat: It is heavier, its grains are larger and yield greater and produces better quality of flour. Because of its greater weight, it is not propagated by the wind: Man is the one who transports it and extends it, the cultivation of the present wheat is a 100% human activity.

To this material published in the book, I add this news about the wild wheat, known as espelta is a variety that belongs to the hexaploids (family of 42 chromosomes), which comes from the wild spelled so it is also considered spelled, The cuial is still planted in Asturias - Spain:
The escandia, escanda or wild wheat has been cultivated for about 7,000 years a.C. And is considered the initial variety of all the present wheat varieties present in the near east and documented for about 7 millennia (it has already been seen in archaeological sites of Iraq, Israel and Turkey).

According to the Asturian digital newspaper [6] New Spain, Nicolai Ivanovich Vavilov, one of the leading genetic biologists of the twentieth century (born in Moscow in 1887), made a study tour of Asturias in 1927 where he discovered that this region was the only Place of Spain in which the cultivation of a spelled was conserved whose origin is still an unresolved mystery. Ivanovich looked at everything with great curiosity and when he arrived in Asturias at the time of the harvest and to his surprise he realized that he was not harvested with scythes or scythes, but using old beaners where the grain is removed and thrown into baskets. "During my travels in about 60 countries not once did I have a chance to observe this way of harvesting. I only know of a similar method in the mountains of western Georgia at Lechjumi where a significant group of endemic wheat was discovered A particular species genetically very close to spelled. "


Originally Posted by Fabián Massa en


[1] Ali Kosh: 1) History of Ali Kosh, by George Roux, AKAL editorial, pages 57 and 58; 2)
[2] Jarmo: 1) Brief History of the Sumerians, by Ana Martos Rubio, publisher Nowtilus, pages 60-61; 2)
[4] Because of its greater weight


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