Translated from Spanish to English with Google Translator.

In the third part of the INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER we have exposed the main points of conflict of the Pentateuch, they have as their origin the theme of authorship, which are:

1. Moses' account of his own burial: If the author had been Moses, as the tradition claims, he obviously could not have written after his death.
2. The alternation between the use of the 1st and 3rd person in the narration: The author protagonist of a story always writes in the first person. However, when the author / editor / compiler narrates an action of another, it turns to the third person.
3. Anachronisms They occur because different authors live in times separated by time.

4. Duplications and repetitions of stories occur when data are collected from the same story from different sources. In reading the current versions this is hardly noticeable, as the original names have been replaced (see Part Two, point V)
5. The use of different Names of God sometimes within the same chapter is the same case as duplications and repetitions (see Part Two God Names).
6. The perception that there are fragments that seem strange within the texts, this happens when we have a story that has been shaped in a heterogeneous way, by compilation of different traditions and with different authors. Despite the efforts of the compiler to homogenize the narrative, the incorporation of different fragments is noticeable.

7. The changes of vocabularies and expressions same case of c, d, e and f. Taking into account that there are libraries full of excellent works on the Pentateuch, the interest of this third part of the introduction is only to give a brief, ordered and chronological account of the most outstanding answers of Biblical scholarship to the problematic of the Pentateuch, since antiquity to the present day.

            In this advance of the book "DE EDÉN A LAS NACIONES" we share the anachronisms.

Anachronisms are preferred by detractors of the Bible to "prove" that it is not a book inspired by God. However, all these anti-biblical arguments are annulled if we consider the possibility that the Pentateuch was written by more than one author and reissued over a long period of time. Here are some examples:

A. 6 And Abram passed through that land to the place of Shechem, to the oak of More; And the Canaanite was then in the land. RV60 Gen. 12.6 The explanation the Canaanite was then on earth evidences that the author writes in a very late epoch to the fact that he narrates.

B. 14 And Abram heard that his kinsman was a captive, and pitched his servants, born in his house, three hundred and eighteen, and followed them to Dan. Gen. 14.14 RV60. Dan established his territory long after the death of Moses, when the Israelites had already entered Canaan and had begun to conquer the land. The territory of Dan is set in Joshua 19: 40-48.

C. In Gen. 36: 31-43 the author gives all the genealogy of the kings of Edom, which far exceeds the life of Moses. Practically we find the same section repeated almost exactly in 1 Chronicles 1: 43-54, using the same formula toledot: "Zultan reigned in Edom, and the name of his city was Tal; Zultano died and its son Fulano reigned in its place ... continuing thus until completing the series. Traditionally, Esdras (458-398 BCE) is credited with the writing of Chronicles, there are scholars who claim that it may have been composed of an anonymous Levite in 300 BC. Which took advantage of the writings of Ezra. What is certain is that the work is post exilic between 400 and 300 BC [2]. The great similarity between the two sections invites us to think that it is possible that they were written by the same posttextile author between the fourth and third centuries BC.

D. "6 No man knows of his tomb until this day." Deuteronomy 34: 6 RV60, which implies that the author lived long after the death of Moses.

and. In Gen. 7.2 God tells Noah how many "pure" and "unclean" animals should bear in the Ark. Categorizing animals in this way (ritual) is foreign to the real time where the action of the story takes place (the pure ones are suitable for food and / or sacrifices) Such classification is much later, being given in Leviticus 11: 1-31 cf . Deuteronomy 14: 3-21.


[1] Fulano, Sutano, Mengano, etc ... fictitious names or hypothetical characters. Http://
[2] New Illustrated Bible Dictionary Nelson, Ed. Caribe, page 240.


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